Macro-level of urban resilience: reconfiguration of multinational firms’ networks in Russia during the economic crisis of 2014-2016
Mikhail Rogov, Céline RozenblatThis research focuses on the macro-level of the evolution of the integration of the Russian system of cities in the globalization. On this macro level, we explore the dynamics of the connection and centrality of Russian cities by examining multinational firms’ ownership networks (Russian and foreign) linking Russian cities all together and with other cities in the world. We use these dynamic data on ownership linkages of multinational companies that highlight how far the geo-economical events of 2014 influenced the processes on the macro-level (networks of cities). We observe how these ownership linkages re-configurated before and after the international economic sanctions. Thus, we evaluate first, the dynamics of foreign investments in and out from Russia, and second, how the whole Russian system of cities can influence each Russian city (meso-level). The principal research question is: How did the economic shocks of 2014 perturbate the national and international inter-city networks of Russian cities that were on a certain dynamic of integration before the shock?
Database BvD-ORBIS-UNIL (2010, 2013, 2016, 2019) is used to analyze the influence of reconfiguration of multinational firms to the development of Russian cities. The data is based on Bureau van Dijk individual firm’s information of all the direct and indirect subsidiaries of the 3,000 largest firms of the world according to their turnover at each date. The ORBIS database includes all over the world about 600,000 firms in 2010 (800,000 ownership linkages), 1.2 million firms (2 million linkages) in 2016. For Russia it represents about 45,000 enterprises in 2010 and 45,600 in 2016 (respectively 51,000 and 56,000 ownership linkages).
The preliminary results show that the amount of linkages of multinational companies to/from Russia increased during this crisis, but this increase was much less intense than elsewhere. It reveals the continuous development of the global integration of Russian cities despite sanctions.